The Human Origin Project @thehumanoriginproject

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4 hours ago

Beside the attention that K'inich Janaab' Pakal's tomb brought to Palenque, the city is historically significant for its extensive hieroglyphic corpus composed during the reigns of Janaab' Pakal, his son K'inich Kan B'ahlam, and his grandson K'inich Akal Mo' Naab', and for being the location where Heinrich Berlin and later Linda Schele and Peter Mathews outlined the first dynastic list for any Maya city. ​ ​The work of Tatiana Proskouriakoff as well as that of Berlin, Schele, Mathews, and others, initiated the intense historical investigations that characterized much of the scholarship on the ancient Maya from the 1960s to the present. ​ ​Sixty-three years since the discovery of the tomb of Mayan King Pakal located inside the Temple of Inscriptions in Palenque, Chiapas (southern state of Mexico ), the researcher Guillermo Bernal Romero from the Maya Studies Center, of the Institute of Philological Investigations of the National University of Mexico (UNAM ), deciphered the T514 glyph meaning YEJ: "sharp edge." ​ ​The scholar explained that "the name is related to the nine warriors depicted on the walls of the tomb, also refers to the war, capturing prisoners, and conquering cities. The tomb itself is a glorification of war, has a symbolic relationship with various elements, for example, the nine levels of the Mayan underworld. " The YEJ glyph is associated with Te' which means "spear," so this finding allows to can read, for the first time the name of the chamber where the sacred tomb of the ruler is: "The House of the Nine Sharp Spears ." The enigma was solved by studying different elements, including the jaguar, sacred animal of the Mayan universe; by analyzing various skulls and observe their molars, the researcher related the information with the glyphs and determined that the glyph in question, is the schematic representation of the upper molar of a jaguar, which is at least registered in more than 50 Mayan inscriptions. ​⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​📷 @annunakihistory

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12 hours ago

A thousand years ago, a group of devout Christians from the Greek island of Samos built a church and small monastery in an impossibly remote location, high above the small settlement of Kambos, on Mt. Kerkis. The nuns who lived in what evolved into a convent moved away in 2007 due to the impossibility of living in such a remote locale in failing health, and today the site, which sits near the end of a glorious hike on an idyllic island, is closed to the public.⁣ ​⁣ ​A quick look at a map of Samos reveals a lot about the history of the island and the devotion of its early inhabitants. There are dozens of little black dots with crosses, signifying the presence of a church or monastery, all over the map, but mostly in the mountainous interior. Here and indeed all over the Balkans, Christians built churches in remote locations because they feared pirates, Turks, and other invaders.⁣ ⁣ These places of worship can be difficult to find, but many in Samos and across what was once ancient Macedonia, are adorned with stunning frescoes and make for remarkably good hikes. ​⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​📷 @nik_zafeiris

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Yesterday

Oratorio di San Pellegrino (Italian for Oratory of San Pellegrino ) is a medieval oratory in the village of Bominaco, in the municipality of Caporciano in the Province of L'Aquila (Abruzzo ).⁣⁣ ​⁣⁣ ​The oratory was part of a Benedictine monastery that was established in the Carolingian era. An inscription on the back wall indicates it was constructed in 1263, commissioned by Abbot Teodino. The oratory was believed to have been constructed over the tomb of San Pellegrino of Syria, a saint evidently highly regarded in this area, but little is known about him.⁣⁣ ⁣⁣ UNESCO declared the oratory a World Heritage Site in 1996.⁣⁣ ​⁣⁣ ​An eighteenth-century porch marks the front facade, while a bell tower tops the back. The small space (18.7 x 5.6m ) comprises a single nave with ogival vaults in 4 bays. (Interior of Oratory ) It is lit by three small windows on each side and rosette windows on the front and back facades. The space is divided by a half wall that must have served to separate lay visitors from the monks. The interior walls are entirely covered with frescoes, which date to the late 13th century.⁣⁣ ​⁣⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣⁣ ​📷 @makemake_rc

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Yesterday

Nam Xay Viewpoint Vang Vieng is one of the most picturesque views overlooking the lush Laos landscape. It’s a hidden gem that not many people know of so you won’t find a massive crowd of tourists here. A short hike to the top of Nam Xay Viewpoint will leave you speechless as you admire the 360 degree views of the surrounding landscapes filled with jagged cliffs and rice fields.⁣ ​⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​📷 @alemarra

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Yesterday

Mayapan is a Pre-Columbian Maya site a couple of kilometers south of the town of Telchaquillo in Municipality of Tecoh, approximately 40 km south-east of Mérida and 100 km west of Chichen Itza; in the state of Yucatán, Mexico. Mayapan was the political and cultural capital of the Maya in the Yucatán Peninsula during the Late Post-Classic period from the 1220s until the 1440s. Estimates of the total city population are 15,000–17,000 persons, and the site has more than 4,000 structures within the city walls, and additional dwellings outside.⁣ ⁣ The site has been professionally surveyed and excavated by archeological teams, beginning in 1939; five years of work was done by a team in the 1950s, and additional studies were done in the 1990s. Since 2000, a collaborative Mexican-United States team has been conducting excavations and recovery at the site, which continue.⁣ ​⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​📷 @annunakihistory

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2 days ago

A large archway leads into the inner sanctuary at a long abandoned church. It is believed the building was entirely abandoned shortly after the English Reformation. This approximate timescale is backed up by the mature oak tree growing from within what was once the nave.⁣⁣ ​⁣⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣⁣ ​📷 @forgottenheritage

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2 days ago

Kaunos was a city of ancient Caria and in Anatolia, a few km west of the modern town of Dalyan, Muğla Province, Turkey.⠀⁣ The Calbys river (now known as the Dalyan river ) was the border between Caria and Lycia. Initially Kaunos was a separate state; then it became a part of Caria and later still of Lycia.⠀⁣ ⁣ Kaunos was an important sea port, the history of which is supposed to date back till the 10th century BC. Because of the formation of İztuzu Beach and the silting of the former Bay of Dalyan (from approx. 200 BC onwards ), Kaunos is now located about 8 km from the coast.⠀⁣ ⁣ Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ 🔁 @arkeoanadolu

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2 days ago

The Maze panel in Vermilion Cliffs National Monument. ⁣⁣ ⁣⁣ Vermilion Cliffs is most famous for a geological formation called the wave, but Vermilion Cliffs is also home to ancient stories told in stone. ⁣⁣ ⁣⁣ About 10 miles from an Ancestral Puebloan village site called “West Bench Pueblo”, near the Arizona/Utah border, is the Maze Rock petroglyph panel. It is located in a fallen jumble of sandstone boulders, overlooking a small valley of desert scrub. It features Archaic and Ancestral Puebloan petroglyphs depicting anthropomorphic, zoomorphic, and abstract designs. ⁣⁣ ⁣⁣ The writing hints at an ancient hunting ground, where bighorn, mountain lion, deer, and other game was plentiful. There is also the image of an animal that looks suspiciously like an armadillo. ⁣⁣ ⁣⁣ The site is noted on the National Geographic map, but the trail is unmarked and undeveloped. The site is accessible by a .5 mile meander from unpaved House Rock Road to the western face of Coyote Buttes. Before viewing the panel, we wondered if the panel may have received its name from the maze-like route through sagebrush one has to traverse in order to find the site. The BLM has proposed developing a trail to diminish the erosion caused by the braided network of footpaths being imposed on the landscape by explorers trying to find Maze. My pal Jim and I were fortunate to see the panel at a time before it is separated from its natural setting by informational kiosks. ⁣⁣ ⁣⁣ We now know that the panel received its name because it features a large and prominent image of a maze. We both have a favorite image, that of a person wearing earrings who appears to have a ladder-like insect crossing its body. Very evocative. ⁣⁣ ⁣⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣⁣ ​📷 @ancientartarchive

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3 days ago

Some early interpretations of Homo neanderthalensis by paleo artist Zdenek Burian.⁣ ⁣ Neanderthal fossils were first discovered in 1829 in the Engis caves in present-day Belgium and the Gibraltar 1 skull in 1848 in the Forbes' Quarry, Gibraltar. These finds were not, at the time, recognized as representing an archaic form of humans...⁣ ⁣ The first discovery which was recognized as representing an archaic form of humans was made in August 1856, three years before Charles Darwin's 'On the Origin of Species' was published. This was the discovery of the type specimen, Neanderthal 1, in a limestone quarry (Feldhofer Cave ), located in Neandertal Valley in the German Rhineland, about 12 km (7 mi ) east of Düsseldorf ). The workers who recovered the objects originally thought them to be the remains of a cave bear.⁣ ⁣ To date, the bones of over 400 Neanderthals have been found.⁣ ​⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​🔁 @evolution_soup

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3 days ago

Safdarjung's Tomb is a sandstone and marble mausoleum in Delhi, India. It was built in 1754 in the late Mughal Empire style for Nawab Safdarjung. The monument has an ambience of spaciousness and an imposing presence with its domed and arched red brown and white coloured structures. Safdarjung, Nawab of Oudh, was made prime minister of the Mughal Empire (Wazir ul-Mamlak-i-Hindustan ) when Ahmed Shah Bahadur ascended the throne in 1748.⁣ ​⁣ ​The Safdarjung tomb, the last monumental tomb garden of the Mughals, was planned and built like an enclosed garden tomb in line with the style of the Humayun tomb. It was completed in 1754.The slabs from the tomb of Abdul Rahim Khankhana were used in the construction of the tomb. ⁣ The tomb has four key features which are: The Char Bagh plan with the mausoleum at the center, a ninefold floor plan, a five-part façade and a large podium with a hidden stairway. ⁣ The main entry gate to the tomb is two-storied and its façade has very elaborate ornamentation over plastered surfaces and is in ornate purple colour. There is an inscription in Arabic on the surface and its translation reads "When the hero of plain bravery departs from the transitory, may he become a resident of god’s paradise". The rear side of the façade, which is seen after entering through the gate, has many rooms and the library. To the right of the gate is the mosque which is a three-domed structure marked with stripes.⁣ ​⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​📷 @taibnaved786

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3 days ago

The ancient remnants of in Siraf indicate that it has been one of the most crowded ports in southern Iran and visited by many ships from the Middle East. There are ancient burials at the altitudes overlooking the hills of the northern Siraf. According to archaeologists, they have been structures for storing rainwater.⁣ ​⁣ Rainwater storage ponds in the historical port of Siraf are rectangular and have been mounted to the slope of the mountain range. Large volumes of rainwater on the highest ponds overflew downward and filled other ponds downhill.⁣ ​⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​🔁 @afshin_tabatabaei

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4 days ago

Harran, ancient Carrhae, was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa. The location is in the Harran district of Şanlıurfa Province.⁣ ⁣ A few kilometers from the village of Altınbaşak are the archaeological remains of ancient Harran, a major commercial, cultural, and religious center first inhabited in the Early Bronze Age III (3rd millennium BCE ) period. The city was called Hellenopolis in the Early Christian period. It is mentioned, in Movses Khorenatsi's and Mikayel Chamchian's History of Armenia, as being under the authority of prince Sanadroug, the sovereignty of which he assigned to Queen Helena of Adiabene.⁣ ​⁣ ​The earliest records of Harran come from Ebla tablets (late 3rd millennium BCE ). From these, it is known that an early king or mayor of Harran had married an Eblaite princess, Zugalum, who then became "queen of Harran", and whose name appears in a number of documents. It appears that Harran remained a part of the regional Eblaite kingdom for some time thereafter.⁣ ⁣ Royal letters from the city of Mari on the middle of the Euphrates, have confirmed that the area around the Balikh river remained occupied in c. the 19th century BCE. A confederation of semi-nomadic tribes was especially active around the region near Harran at that time.⁣ ​⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​📷 @ancientarcheology

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4 days ago

The archaeological site is located a few dozen metres from the medieval Christian church, surrounded by green olive trees. It is divided into two nuclei: in the first you will find a well temple dating back to the final Bronze Age (12th century BC ), set in a sacred enclosure (themenos ) shaped like a 'lock'. Built with finely worked basalt blocks using accurate techniques, the temple is a jewel with perfect geometric shapes. Inside it is formed by a vestibule, a staircase and a room covered by a tholos (false dome ), built in concentric rings. The stairwell has a trapezoidal section with 7 metre-thick joining walls. The 25 steps gradually narrow up to the cell, covered with mirrored lintels: the effect is of an 'inverted staircase'. As you go down the stairs, you will feel a restless sense of descending into the past. The site was dedicated to the water cult, which attracted nuragic people from all over the island. The water reaches a tank, dug into the rock, from a perennial spring, allowing the level to remain constant all year round. The temple was probably originally covered, and the raised part would have been similar to that of the sacred well on Tempiesu at Orune.⁣ ⁣ Outside the enclosure lie the remains of the nuragic settlement. You will notice the round 'meeting hut', with a diameter of ten metres, paved with pebbles and equipped with a circular seat, and another dozen rooms, perhaps the homes of priests and the market shops that accompanied the religious solemnities. The sanctuary may also have been a place of astronomical observation, and it is worth visiting at night, with caution, to see the full moon reflected in the waters of the well. Middle-Eastern bronzes from the beginning of the first millennium BC, bronze fibulae (9th century BC ) and Phoenician gold jewellery, found by the excavations, testify to its long cultural and commercial vitality.⁣ ​⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​📷 @samdhmh

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4 days ago

Tlos is an ancient ruined Lycian hilltop citadel near the resort town of Fethiye in the Mugla Province of southern Turkey, some 4 kilometres northwest of Saklikent Gorge. Tlos is believed to be one of the most important religious Lycian sites and settlement on the site is said to have begun more than 4,000 years ago.⁣ ​⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​📷 @photo_lycia

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5 days ago

In 1986, during excavations in Saqqara by the Egypt Exploration Society and the RMO, the tomb of Maya and Merit was rediscovered. Maya was a high-ranking official in the Egypt of Tutankhamun and Horemheb. It is possible that he already embarked upon his career during the reign of Akhenaten. He served as Director of the Treasury, and he could therefore be described as the Minister of Home Affairs and of the Treasury. Maya organised the construction of Tutankhamun’s tomb. He had his own tomb built next to that of general Horemheb. Later, in the time of Ramses II, another tomb was inserted in between these two: that of the treasury director Tia.⁣ ​⁣ ​Maya’s tomb exemplifies a common design: the visitor passes through a high gate or ‘pylon’ into an inner court with three large, roofed rooms. This leads to a second inner court with three chapels. In the centre of the second court is a deep shaft; through a system of passages, a second shaft, and a spiral staircase one reaches three decorated rooms, at a depth of 22 metres. These rooms once contained the mummies of Maya and his wife Merit.⁣ ​⁣ ​This statue depicts Maya and Merit as recipients of food. The figures therefore represent the life principle or ‘ka’ of these individuals. They are dressed in their finest clothes. We can clearly see that the statue was once painted, but the white of the clothes has turned a yellowish colour.⁣ ​⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​📷 @chaen2009

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5 days ago

Punctuating the middle of the arcades that hem Esfahan's largest square, this study in harmonious understatement complements the overwhelming richness of the larger mosque, Masjed-e Shah, at the head of the square. Built between 1602 and 1619 during the reign of Shah Abbas I, it was dedicated to the ruler’s father-in-law, Sheikh Lotfollah, a revered Lebanese scholar of Islam who was invited to Esfahan to oversee the king’s mosque (now the Masjed-e Shah ) and theological school. ⁣ ⁣ The dome makes extensive use of delicate cream-coloured tiles that change colour throughout the day from cream to pink (sunset is usually the best time to witness this ). The signature blue-and-turquoise tiles of Esfahan are evident only around the dome’s summit. ⁣ ⁣ The pale tones of the cupola stand in contrast to those around the portal, which displays some of the best surviving Safavid-era mosaics. The exterior panels contain wonderful arabesques and other intricate floral designs that have become a signature motif of Esfahan; especially fine are those displaying a vase framed by the tails of two peacocks. The portal itself contains some particularly fine muqarnas (stalactite-type stone carving used to decorate doorways and window recesses ) with rich concentrations of blue and yellow motifs. ⁣ ⁣ The mosque is unusual because it has neither a minaret nor a courtyard, and because steps lead up to the entrance. This was probably because the mosque was never intended for public use, but rather served as the worship place for the women of the shah’s harem. The sanctuary or prayer hall is reached via a twisting hallway where the eyes become accustomed to the darkness as subtle shifts of light play across deep blue tilework. This hallway is integral to both the design and function of the mosque because it takes the worshipper from the grand square outside into a prayer hall facing Mecca, on a completely different axis. ⁣ ⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​📷 @harimaolee

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5 days ago

See the purple haze of bygone eras? ⁣ ⁣ The use of ammonites in stratigraphy was pioneered in the 1850s by two Germans — Friedrich Quenstedt of Tübingen (1809–1889 ) and his one-time pupil, Albert Oppel of Munich (1831–1865 ). ⁣ ⁣ Their work was based on the ammonites of the Swabian and Franconian Alb of southern Germany — the eastern extension of the Jura Mountains of France and Switzerland, from which the Jurassic Period takes its name. ⁣ ⁣ Guide fossils ⁣ ⁣ Ammonites make excellent guide fossils for stratigraphy because: ⁣ ⁣ a. they evolved rapidly so that each ammonite species has a relatively short life span ⁣ ⁣ b. they are found in many types of marine sedimentary rocks ⁣ ⁣ c. they are relatively common and reasonably easy to identify ⁣ ⁣ d. they have a worldwide geographical distribution ⁣ ⁣ The rapidity of ammonite evolution is the single most important reason for their superiority over other fossils for the purposes of correlation. Such correlation can be on a worldwide scale. ⁣ ⁣ Ammonites can be used to distinguish intervals of geological time of less than 200 000 years duration. In terms of Earth history, this is very precise. ⁣ ​⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​📷 @fossilhoe

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6 days ago

CHICHÉN ITZÁ, MEXICO ⁣⁣ ⁣⁣ At the spring and fall equinoxes, the setting sun casts serpent-like shadows along the northern stairs of El Castillo, or “the castle.” Built more than a thousand years ago by the ancient Maya, the pyramid towers 100 feet over the ruins of Chichén Itzá, a World Heritage siteand popular tourist destination on Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula. ⁣⁣ ⁣⁣ Adventurers and archaeologists have explored the ruins for more than a century, but mysteries endure. Is there a watery labyrinth beneath the great pyramid, as local legends hint? Are there hidden chambers in the heart of the monument, as some archaeologists suspect? ⁣⁣ ⁣⁣ Seeking clues, a multidisciplinary team of scientists and engineers is launching the first comprehensive investigation of Chichén Itzá in 50 years.⁣⁣ ​⁣⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣⁣ ​📷 @cesarmendiburu

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5 days ago

The Orion Correlation Theory ⁣ ⁣ The three pyramids at Giza are some of the most mysterious, perplexing, and magnificent ancient structures in the world. Together they demonstrate the concept of sacred alignment, as they form a precise three dimensional map of the stars in the belt of Orion onto the ground. Their size and placement also takes into account both the visible brightness and location of the stars within Orion’s belt, as the two larger pyramids are lined up perfectly in comparison to the smaller offset pyramid of Menkuare. ⁣ ⁣ Additionally, the Giza plateau is located at the geographical center of the Earth, which means that it is positioned exactly in the center of the Earth’s landmass. The central pyramid, Khafre, is not only the last remaining of The 7 Wonders of the Ancient World, but is more aligned to true North than the Greenwich observatory in London. ⁣ ⁣ For at least ten thousand years, human beings have been plotting the movement of the stars, studying the heavens, constructing calendars, and erecting monuments to track the procession of the constellations and heavenly bodies across the night sky. ⁣ ⁣ Many ancient cultures shared the belief that we came from the stars. Perhaps this is why so much time, effort, and energy has been put into the study of the celestial bodies from ancient times right up through today. ⁣ ⁣ Do you think the Pyramids represent the alignment of the Orion Constellation?⁣ ​⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject

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6 days ago

Off the island of Pohnpei in Micronesia, lies the ancient city of Nan Madol, the only ancient city ever built upon a coral reef.  Comprising a set of almost 100 stone and coral fill platforms atop artificial islands separated by narrow channels and enclosed by an outer seawall, Nan Madol is an engineering marvel. Yet despite the enormity of the undertaking in building the city, no records exist as to when exactly it was built, where the enormous rocks came from, how they were transported there, and for what reason it was constructed on top of a reef. ⁣ ⁣ ​The total area of the enclosure is 75 hectares. The foundations of the islets were constructed of huge basalt boulders, on which walled enclosures were built using columnar basalt in a header and stretcher pattern in-filled with coral rubble. Walls were as high as 15 metres and up to 5 metres thick. The average weight of each stone is 5 tons, with some weighing as much as 50 tons and it has been estimated that the total weight of the columnar basalt that makes up the city’s construction is up to 750,000 metric tons. ⁣ ⁣ Evidence of the early human activity on the islands dates back to the first or second century BC, but it is not known exactly when the construction of the artificial islets started. Theories range from the 5 th to the 11 th century AD, purportedly built as a ritual and ceremonial centre for the ruling chiefs of the Saudeleur Dynasty.  The Saudeleur dynasty was the first organized government uniting the people of Pohnpei island, ruling from around 1100 to around 1628 AD. However, this era was preceded by the Mwehin Kawa (“period of building” ) and Mwehin Aramas (“period of peopling” ). ⁣ ​⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ 📷 @_mirikufu

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1 weeks ago

In 1879 amateur archaeologist Marcelino Sanz was digging in the floor of a cave on his property in Cantabria. His 8 year old daughter Maria told him to look at the ceiling. There, perfectly preserved was one of the great treasures of Paleolithic Art. The artwork inside Altamira is so well preserved that initially people argued that the paintings were faked. ⁣⁣ ⁣⁣ They are not! The bison polychrome paintings date from the Magdalenian (around 14,000 BP ) but there was a long period of on again off again painting in Altamira that dates from the beginnings of human occupation of Spain 35,000 years ago. ⁣⁣ ⁣⁣ Those dates and time ranges are difficult to comprehend. We have been artists for a long, long time. It is part of who we are. ⁣⁣ ​⁣⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣⁣ ​📷 @ancientartarchive

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1 weeks ago

Kopeshwar Temple is at Khidrapur, Kolhapur district, Maharashtra. It is at the border of Maharashtra and Karnataka It is also accessible from Sangli as well. It was built in the 12th century by Shilahara king Gandaraditya between 1109 and 1178 CE. It is dedicated to Lord Shiva. It is to the east of Kolhapur, ancient & artistic on the bank of the Krishna river.⁣ ⁣ The entire temple is divided into four parts Swargamandapam, Sabhamandapam,Antaral kaksha and Garbha griha.The Swargamandapam has a vestibule with an open top. The sanctum is conical. The exterior has stunning carvings of deities and secular figures. Elephant statues sustain the weight of the temple at the base. ln the interior we first see Vishnu (Dhopeshwar ) & Shivaling facing north. But there is no Nandi who has separate Mandir. Separate Actor-Pendal also called as swarga mandap, hall, old pillars, carvings of gods & male and femnale artists in various poses are attractive. The ceiling is semi-circular with rnatchless engravings. ⁣ ⁣ On the out side, complete 'Shivaleelamrit' is carved. The Kopeshwar, Ancient & artistic temple situated on the bank of Krishna is a fine example of ancient sculpture. It was built in 11-12 century by Shilahara. The ceiling is semi-circular with matchless engravings. Inside there is statue of Vishnu( Dhopeshwar ) and Shivling " Kopeshwar " facing north. There is no nandi who has separate Mandir. Separate Actor-Pendal, hall, old pillars, carvings of gods & male-female artists in various poses are attractive. This is the only Shiva temple in India with idol of Vishnu.⁣ ⁣ Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ 📷 @ancient_indian_

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1 weeks ago

Crater Lake National Park has a fascinating history. Created by the explosion of Mt. Mazama 7,700 years ago, Crater Lake has long inspired reverence and wonder. Here's a brief explanation how it all took place. ⁣ ⁣ The crater is situated atop Mount Mazama, a Quaternary volcano that is part of the Western Cascade Range.  Mazama began to form a half million years ago.  42,000 years ago it stood at its tallest height at 12,000 feet. ⁣ ⁣ Mazama had its most destructive eruption about 7,700 years ago, spewing 12 cubic miles of rhyolite magma in the form of tephra as far north as Alberta, Canada, as far east as Wyoming and as far south as Nevada and northern California.  Pyroclastic flows and lahars descended down around the volcano and a thick layer of tuff formed on the landscape and can still be seen today. ⁣ ⁣ Collapse ⁣ As a result of the eruption, Mazama lost enough material that the weight of the peak of the volcano could not be supported and it collapsed upon itself, creating a caldera. ⁣ ⁣ Wizard Island ⁣ Mazama continued to have smaller eruptions, which sealed the caldera floor and created a cinder cone within the caldera which is know called Wizard Island. ⁣ ⁣ Formation of the Lake ⁣ Over 700 to 1500 years, rain and snow melt gradually filled the caldera, forming Crater Lake.  Today, there is a balance between evaporation and precipitation and the water level in the lake usually fluctuates less than three feet year to year. ⁣ ⁣ In terms of geologic time, Crater Lake is very young.  It is believed that humans likely witnessed the explosion.  In fact, a sandal was found buried in the ash from the eruption.  Klamath tribes have legends of how Crater Lake came to be. ​ ​Who has been to Crater Lake? If not would you like to see it? ⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​📷 @ jesse.brackenbury

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2 weeks ago

Situated in the heart of the Gulf Stream in the North Atlantic at 62°00’N, the Faroe Islands lie northwest of Scotland and halfway between Iceland and Norway. The archipelago is composed of 18 islands covering 1399 km2 (545.3 sq.miles ) and is 113 km (70 miles ) long and 75 km (47 miles ) wide, roughly in the shape of an arrowhead. There are 1100 km (687 miles ) of coastline and at no time is one more than 5 km (3 miles ) away from the ocean. The highest mountain is 882 m (2883 ft ) above sea level and the average height above sea level for the country is 300 m (982 ft ). Find your tours and activities in the Faroe Islands. ⁣ The weather is maritime and quite changeable, from moments of brilliant sunshine to misty hill fog, to showers. The Gulf Stream encircling the islands tempers the climate. The harbours never freeze and the temperature in winter time is very moderate considering the high latitude. Snowfall occurs, but is shortlived. The average temperature ranges from 3,5°C in winter to 12°C in the summer. In sheltered areas, the temperature can be much higher, but the air is always fresh and clean no matter what the season. ⁣ ⁣ The population is 50,000 (1st April 2017 ). 20,929 people live in the metropolitan area which comprises Tórshavn, Kirkjubøur, Velbastaður, Nólsoy, Hestur, Koltur, Hoyvík, Argir, Kaldbak, Kaldbaksbotnur, Norðradalur, Syðradalur, Hvítanes, Sund, Kollafjørður, Signabøur and Oyrareingir, while about 4,722 people live in Klaksvík, the second largest town in the Faroe Islands. ⁣ ​⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​📷 @thrainnko

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Chimera with a human head and a lion's head; Late Hittite period, Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, ⁣ ⁣ THE KHIMAIRA (Chimera ) was a three-headed monster which ravaged the countryside of Lykia (Lycia ) in Anatolia. It was a bizarre fire-breathing creature with the body and head of a lion, a goat's head rising from its back, the udders of a goat, and a serpent for a tail. ⁣ ⁣ The hero Bellerophon was commanded by King Iobates to slay the beast. He rode into battle on the back of the winged horse Pegasos and drove a lead-tipped lance into its flaming throat, choking the beast on molten metal. ⁣ ⁣ Late classical writers believed the creature was a metaphor for a Lycian volcano. ⁣ ⁣ The Hittites were an ancient group of Indo-Europeans who moved into Asian Minor and formed an empire at Hattusa in Anatolia (modern Turkey ) around 1600 BCE. ⁣ ⁣ The Hittite Empire reached great heights during the mid-1300s BCE, when it spread across Asia Minor, into the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia. ⁣ ⁣ Like many Indo-Europeans, the Hittites were able to travel long distances and migrate to other lands due to the domestication of horses. The spread of technologies like the wheel and wagon, which were also used in ancient Mesopotamia and other early civilizations in the region, also assisted pastoralists and agrarian civilizations. ⁣ ⁣ After about 1180 BCE, the empire ended and splintered into several independent Neo-Hittite—new Hittite—city-states, some of which survived until the eighth century BCE. ⁣ ​⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​📷 @antiktarih

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Addis Ababa, National Museum of Ethiopia: reconstructed skull of Australopithecus garhi from elements found in 1997 (Awash, Afar region ). ⁣ ⁣ Australopithecus garhi is a 2.5-million-year-old  gracile australopithecine species whose fossils were discovered in 1996 by a paleontologist research team led by Berhane Asfaw and Tim White. ⁣ ⁣ The remains are suggested as representing the transitional stage between the  Australopithecus and Homo genera. ⁣ ​⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​📷 @evolution_soup

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The Tomb of Amyntas, also known as the Fethiye Tomb is an ancient tomb built in the city and district of Fethiye in Muğla Province, located in the Aegean region of Turkey. ⁣ Modern Fethiye is located on the site of the Ancient Greek city of Telmessos, with the Tomb of Amyntas located in the south side of the city in the mountainside, in the base of the mountain. ​ ​The impressive looking tomb was built in 350 BC, and was named after the Greek inscription on the side of it which reads "Amyntou tou Ermagiou", which translated to English means "Amyntas, son of Hermagios". ​ ​The tomb was built by the Lycians, the people who lived in this area of Turkey at the time. The Lycians were never members of a specific country, but rather a tightly-knit confederation of independent city-states, which included Telmessos.⁣ ​⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​📷 @arkeoanadolu

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The dark vs light crystals of this fossil tells some of the earliest traces of life on planet earth. ⁣ Ammonites lived during the periods of Earth history known as the Jurassic and Cretaceous. Together, these represent a time interval of about 140 million years. ⁣ The Jurassic Period began about 201 million years ago, and the Cretaceous ended about 66 million years ago. The ammonites became extinct at the end of the Cretaceous Period, at roughly the same time as the dinosaurs disappeared. ⁣ ⁣ However, we know a lot about them because they are commonly found as fossils, formed when the remains or traces of the animal became buried sediment that later solidified into rock. ⁣ ⁣ The ammonite's shell was divided into chambers separated by walls known as septa (singular septum ). These strengthened the shell and stopped it from being crushed by the external water pressure. Ammonites could probably not withstand depths of more than 100 metres. ⁣ ⁣ The septa had frilled edges: intricate lines, of varying complexity and known as sutures, mark where the septa joined the shell wall. ⁣ ⁣ The ammonite lived in only the last chamber, the body-chamber; earlier ones were filled with gas or fluid which the ammonite was able to regulate in order to control its buoyancy and movement, much like a submarine. ⁣ ⁣ The coiled shell is generally the only part of the ammonite to be preserved as a fossil. As well as being aesthetically pleasing and popular with fossil collectors, they are of particular value to geologists. ⁣ ​⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​📷 @fossilhoe

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The word Edzná comes from “House of the Itzás”, which has led Archaeologists to believe that this Mayan city was influenced by the family Itzá long before they founded Chichen Itzá. It has also been documented that the layout of Edzná mimicked that of Teotihuacán near Mexico City. This Mayan site is as intriguing as it sounds and is a great trip through the Yucatan Peninsula. Adventure awaits at Edzná. ⁣ ⁣ The history of the Edzná ruins is fascinating, the archaeological site a marvel. When we decided to make the trip to the Edzná ruins, admittedly we were kicking ourselves for not coming sooner. The list of interesting facts about Edzna starts with the following: there were influences from the Itzá Family, the size of the settlement at 25 km², the population at one point reached 25,000 people, half the size of Coba. Our visit to Edzná took us deeper into Mayan history and raised yet more questions about this incredibly intelligent community. When we read that Edzná mimicked aspects of Teotihuacán, the icing was on the cake. Edzná is a must-see ruin that will further your appreciation for the Maya and increase your desire to learn more. ⁣ ⁣ Gran Acropolis – The Sun Point The Grand Acropolis is the central platform that supports 5 structures. It is located in the eastern section of the site, a significant cardinal point for the Maya. The Gran Acropolis faces the horizon and looks upon the Palace located directly in front. ⁣ ⁣ The main castillo named Cinco Pisos (5 levels ) is what defines the Gran Acropolis. This unique castillo has five levels and reaches 40 meters. The structure provides a wide overview of the surroundings from the top, which was thought to be used by spiritual and religious leaders. Each stair had intricate glyph carvings with remnants of the stucco details still seen today. ⁣ ⁣ Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​📷 @garridohounds

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Grand Canyon Esplanade Polychrome Panel in Mojave County, Arizona ⁣ ⁣ The human story etched in rock. Our ancestors left the greatest mystery ever told behind on the natural panels of their environment. ⁣ ⁣ Since the end of the last ice age people have made their home in the Grand Canyon region. An arrowhead dated to 12,000 years ago was found near Lipan point a few years ago. Pictographs, petroglyphs, cliff dwellings, granaries, foundation ruins, split twig figures, arrowheads, spear points, and potsherds are sprinkled throughout the region. ​ ​These and other archaeological artifacts are testament to the rich human history in the area. These early peoples grew corn, beans, and squash and hunted bighorn sheep, deer, and small animals and birds to survive. By 1,250 CE most had left the area, almost all at once, for reasons that are not completely understood but might have involved drought, overpopulation, disease, warfare, or a combination of these and perhaps other factors. ⁣ ​⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​📷 @ancientartarchive

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San rock art in Gamepass shelter, South Africa ⁣ ⁣ The San of Southern Africa produced thousands of fantastic paintings including some large scale panels like Gamepass shelter. The San rock art painting tradition continued into historic times and much of the information we have about their world view comes from modern San people explaining the meaning of their ancestors' art. ⁣ ⁣ The uKhahlamba Drakensberg region of KwaZulu-Natalis rich in rock art left behind by the San people. These exquisite paintings tell stories of yesteryear and teach us more about the mythology, ritual, and beliefs of the San. ⁣ ⁣ Paintings were made using mostly black, white, red and orange pigments gathered from the surrounding natural environment. ⁣ ⁣ Long thought to be merely pictorial journals of hunting trips and everyday life, researchers have now uncovered some of the deeper meaning of the art. The most frequently depicted animal is the eland, the largest antelope of the uKhahlamba Drakensberg and vital to the well being of the San, providing meat, fat and skins. ⁣ ⁣ The eland became an important symbol to the San and was viewed as an animal of power, with supernatural potency and great religious significance. Some paintings show mysterious figures with combined antelope and human features that relate to the San spirit realm. ⁣ ⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​📷 @ancientartarchive

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Iceland is also known as the land of Fire and Ice because of the constant battle between the freezing forces of glaciers, arctic weather and the explosive heat of the Icelandic volcanoes. Home to many active volcanoes, spouting geysers, thermal springs and frequent earthquakes, this country also gives you one of the most geologically diverse landscapes on earth. ⁣ ⁣ While there are approximately 130 Icelandic volcanoes, only about 30 of them are active. Iceland has a long history of eruptions. This has resulted in an island of dramatic contrasts across a stark landscape. In Iceland, volcanoes define the nature of the land; creating endless fields of moss-coated lava, sweeping plains of black sand, jagged peaks as well as vast craters. While most of the volcanoes are inactive, you can visit these volcanic craters — a beauty like nowhere else. ​⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​📷 @lukasfilms

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The archaeological site of the so-called Midas City is situated in the Eskişehir region in Central Anatolia, near the village of Yazılıkaya (which in Turkish means something like "rock inscription" ). With a few exceptions, most of the Phrygian rock-cut monuments for which the site has become famous, date back to the sixth century BCE. In the 1960s, they have been investigated and documented by a French archaeological team, directed by Albert Gabriel. ⁣ ⁣ Phrygian necropolis: The so-called Midas Monument owes its name to the fact that the word Mida is used in an inscription on the upper left-hand side of the façade, which is almost eighteen meters high. Mida was mistranslated as Midas, the name of a legendary king of Phrygia; in fact, it is a surname of Cybele, the Phrygian Mother Goddess. The so-called tomb, which is older than the rest of the city and belongs to the eighth century BCE, was in reality a sanctuary. During the ceremonies, a statue of Cybele could be placed in the niche. ⁣ ⁣ To the south of the Midas Monument lies a rock-cut necropolis with several Phrygian tombs. From here one can walk further on the plateau and reach another Phrygian rock-cut monument, which has remained unfinished. A little bit further you reach the impressive water cisterns, some with a flight of steps who leads to several huge underground cisterns. ⁣ ⁣ Alter of Cybele: Via a flight of steps, you can proceed to the high acropolis, which is about 800 meters ling on 135 meters wide. You will have a splendid overall view of the site with an unfinished altar, rock tombs, and the magnificent Phrygian altar of the Mother-Goddess at the highest point of the acropolis. During religious festivities, a statue of a seated Cybele could be placed on this throne. ⁣ ​⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​📷 @izkiz

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The Temple of Castor and Pollux, Agrigento, Sicily.⁣ ⁣ Castor and Pollux are better known as the Dioscuri (twin deities ); the children of Zeus and Leda (the wife of Tyndareus, the king of Sparta ).⁣ ⁣ The Temple of Castor and Pollux is certainly the emblem of the city of Agrigento, the ancient Akragas. The construction was erected at the end of the fifth century BC and it is an peripteral exastyle of Doric order. Nowadays only 4 columns are still standing; because they have been recomposed and replaced in their original position during the 19th century.⁣ ⁣ Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ 📷 @instaterrestre

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The University of Hawaii has reported that researchers recently discovered that Oahu actually consists of three major Hawaiian shield volcanoes, not two, as previously thought. ⁣ ⁣ This from the combined efforts of scientists from the Manoa campus, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de L’Environment in France and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute in California. ⁣ ⁣ It’s been commonly thought that the island of Oahu is made up of the remnants of two volcanoes, Wai’anae and Ko’olau. But extending almost 62 miles WNW from Ka’ena Point is a large region called the submarine Ka’ena Ridge. ⁣ ⁣ It is that region that has now been recognized to represent a precursor volcano to the island of Oahu, and on whose flanks the Wai’anae and Ko’olau Volcanoes later formed. ⁣ ⁣ Prior to the recognition of the Ka’ena volcano, the Wai’anae volcano was assumed to have been exceptionally large and to have formed an unusually large distance from its next oldest neighbor, Kauai. “Both of these assumptions can now be revised: Wai’anae is not as large as previously thought and Ka’ena Volcano formed in the region between Kauai and Wai’anae,” said John Sinton, lead author of the study and Emeritus Professor of Geology and Geophysics at the UHM School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology.⁣ ​⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​📷 @vincelimphoto

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The stone head sculptures of the Olmec civilization of the Gulf Coast of Mexico (1200 BCE - 400 BCE ) are amongst the most mysterious and debated artefacts from the ancient world. The most agreed upon theory is that, because of their unique physical features and the difficulty and cost involved in their creation, they represent Olmec rulers. ⁣ ⁣ Seventeen heads have been discovered to date, 10 of which are from San Lorenzo and 4 from La Venta; two of the most important Olmec centres. The heads were each carved from a single basalt boulder which in some cases were transported 100 km or more to their final destination, presumably using huge balsa river rafts wherever possible and log rollers on land. The principal source of this heavy stone was Cerro Cintepec in the Tuxtla Mountains. The heads can be nearly 3 m high, 4.5 metres (9.8 feet, 14.7 feet ) in circumference and average around 8 tons in weight. The heads were sculpted using hard hand-held stones and it is likely that they were originally painted using bright colours. The fact that these giant sculptures depict only the head may be explained by the widely held belief in Mesoamerican culture that it was the head alone which contained the emotions, experience, and soul of an individual. ⁣ ⁣ Facial details were drilled into the stone (using reeds and wet sand ) so that prominent features such as the eyes, mouth, and nostrils have real depth. Some also have deliberately drilled dimples on the cheeks, chin, and lips. The heads all display unique facial features - often in a very naturalistic and expressive manner - so that they may be considered portraits of actual rulers. The scholar M.E. Miller identifies Colossal Head 5, for example, as a second-millenium BCE ruler of San Lorenzo. Although the physionomy of the sculptures has given rise to unfounded speculation of contact with civilizations from Africa, in fact, the physical features common to the heads are still seen today in residents of the modern Mexican cities of Tabasco and Veracruz. ⁣ ​⁣ ​Follow @thehumanoriginproject ⁣ ​📷 @yoyisys

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